It is a depiction of the victory of the Reformation over Catholicism, and I can only find two other examples of this iconography. Considering the topic and style, I highly doubt this is Flemish and ca. 1700: at that time Protestantism was all but dead in Flanders (all followers having fled the country to the Netherlands), and the Reformation and Contra-Reformation were no longer hot topics. Much more likely is a date of ca. 1600, perhaps a bit later, and placing the work in the Netherlands or Germany.
The Catharijneconvent painting is much larger and in better condition; but considering the scarcity of this image and its historical importance (much more than its value as art), I think it is cheap and would not be surprised if this went for closer to 1,000 Euro.
UPDATE: sold for 1,200 Euro, as expected!